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Insights: Education | British education in China’s age of “entrepreneurship plus”

BritCham / CBBC
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By Jane Zhang
Assistant Director of Research
China-Britain Business Council
 
 
There is no hotter topic at the moment than innovation and entrepreneurship. On 4 June, the State Council set out the blueprint from the top in its “Opinions on Several Policy Measures to Boost Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation”. At a recent government meeting, Premier Li Keqiang came back to this theme over and again: “Accelerate the building of the new mass entrepreneurship and innovation engine… We must strongly promote mass entrepreneurship and innovation, using the wings of innovation to fly Chinese enterprises to new heights… Abolish procedures for awarding and authorising professional qualifications and unleash the power of mass entrepreneurship and innovation through reform.”
 
Everyone has shifted their sights to this topic, from government departments - such as the Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Development and Reform Commission - to local officials, educators, economists and entrepreneurs. China is entering the age of “entrepreneurship plus”.
 
In fact in recent years the Chinese government has delivered a succession of "gift packages" in its policies on innovation and entrepreneurship. One such was the abolition of 211 types of vocational qualification so as to remove barriers to work and increase employment.
 
So what is the government hoping to achieve by such measures? First, it can drive and increase employment through the promotion of entrepreneurship. Although the Vice-Minister for Human Resources and Social Security, Xin Changxing, told a forum on employment earlier this year that urban unemployment was still relatively low, in fact with the economy’s shift to the new normal and efforts to meet the government’s goal of limiting registered urban unemployment to “within 4.5 per cent”, pressure remains in terms of overall employment.
 
Second, using the initiative to create an entrepreneurial landscape shaped by market demand can spark a flow of private capital into new technology, new products, new strategies and new business models, thus accelerating the structural transformation and upgrading of China’s economy.
 
Third, using innovation as a new driver of development will translate innovative ideas into industrial activity, with innovation in supply creating growth in demand, so that the economy will be able to maintain medium- to high-speed growth.
 
Against this backdrop, entrepreneurs are flourishing and there is a constant stream of innovative new business models; entrepreneurship can be found across traditional and modern sectors of the economy. According to the head of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, Zhang Mao, over 10,000 new businesses are now registered every day, compared with an average of 7,000 before the reforms – so there has been a large increase.
 
This age of innovation and entrepreneurship promises boundless opportunities and market openings for the UK. Reducing costs and increasing funding channels for entrepreneurs, for example, as well as creating favourable conditions for innovation and entrepreneurship - making it easier and more efficient - could open the way for more technology-based platforms, which would boost the provision of public services and the demand for shared online resources. The finance industry would also receive a boost: entrepreneurs would need access to various types of capital market, which in turn would need tighter rules. Certainly the UK has a wealth of technology and experience in fields such as ICT and finance which it can share with China.
 
But nowhere is China’s present wave of entrepreneurship more directly and more effectively complemented than in the UK’s system of “entrepreneurship education” and its established experience in this field. It is widely acknowledged that Britain’s success here puts it among the best in the world, so China - a late starter - could learn a good deal from the UK in a number of areas. At the same time, the two countries show many similarities when it comes to fostering entrepreneurship among university students, which sets the ground for them to share their experience. For example, both countries’ education policies on entrepreneurship are designed to solve the question of graduate employment – and both governments are strongly involved in promoting entrepreneurship education. 
 
Specifically, the UK can export the following experience and skills to China while simultaneously finding opportunities in the Chinese market:
  1. The UK government has experience of setting up specialist organisations, such as Science and Enterprise Centres and the National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship, for which China currently has no equivalent.
  2. Entrepreneurship education has already nurtured a favourable ecosystem in the UK. There are areas where China needs to gain experience, from how to establish a cross-society support network (including government organisations, NGOs, commercial organisations, companies and educational institutions) to how to set up commercial funds and collate the resources of social enterprises, for example through university-industry-government (UIG) initiatives.
  3. The UK already has formative, general and specialist education in entrepreneurship. In recent years it has also been gradually shifting towards a practical project-based system encompassing undergraduates, postgraduates and doctoral students. And not only are entrepreneurship courses on offer in UK universities, but in 2007 a pioneering policy was announced for the establishment of entrepreneurship universities across the country. Be it the education system, curriculum, course materials or teachers, Britain’s resources would be welcomed by their Chinese counterparts.
  4. The UK has done well in developing linked courses. Generally, entrepreneurship courses are not developed by single universities, but as part of a network of several working in cooperation, who improve entrepreneurial education in unison. This kind of “internet plus what?” model can make courses more diverse and it is something China could learn from.
  5. In 2001, the Business School of the University of Sunderland established Britain’s first university-based entrepreneurship incubator. Its model has since been emulated by numerous others, with a variety of universities founding entrepreneurship centres, enterprise centres and innovation centres, providing students with facilities and funding to help them link up with businesses and receive technological support to realise their successful “incubation”. Many Chinese universities have established their own incubators, but many of them only recently, and there is a multitude of areas in which they could benefit from the experience of developed countries. There is no doubt that the UK has established strength in this field to share with Chinese institutions.
In summary, entrepreneurship education, which has been called the “third passport to learning” after academic education and professional training, is now taking off in China. We expect to see more British organisations working with Chinese counterparts in the near future to establish joint academies for innovation and entrepreneurship or to realise success through similar means.
 
The China-Britain Business Council is currently working on a project as part of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office’s Prosperity Fund, which is titled “Accelerating Innovation: Bridging the Gap between UK and China Businesses, and Fostering Collaboration between Incubators and Research and Innovation Centres from UK and Chinese Universities”. We welcome your comments and involvement. 
 
If you would like to know more, please contact the author, Jane Zhang, Assistant Director of Research in Beijing (jane.zhang@cbbc.org.cn) or Nathalie Cachet-Gaujard, China Business Advisor in the UK (nathalie.cachet-gaujard@cbbc.org). 
 
 
中国“创业+”新时代与“英国创业教育体系”完美对接
 
作者:张军萍
英中贸易协会中国区咨询业务助理总监
 
 
当下最火爆的话题莫过于创新创业了。6月4日国务院颁布了《关于大力推进大众创业万众创新若干政策措施的意见》,对创新创业作出了顶层设计。李克强总理近日在相关政府会议上接连三次强调“加快打造大众创业万众创新新引擎”;“要大力推动大众创业万众创新,……用创新的翅膀使中国企业飞向新高度”;“再取消一批职业资格许可和认定事项,以改革释放创业创新活力”。各部门政府(如科技部、发改委)、各地方政府、教育界、经济学家、企业界人士,都将目光聚集到创新创业上,可以说,中国正在进入“创业+”时代。
 
其实围绕创新创业,近年来中国政府密集出台了一系列政策“大礼包”,包括为实现扩大就业清除障碍而取消的211项职业资格许可和认定事项等等。
 
那么通过出台这些政策,政府希望起到哪些作用呢?首先,它可以推动创业带动就业和扩大就业。虽然据人社部副部长信长星在2015年上半年就业形势分析会上表示,城镇失业率保持在较低水平,但随着经济发展进入新常态,为完成政府提出的今年“城镇登记失业率4.5%以内”,就业总量压力依然存在。其次,通过大众创业万众创新,建立以市场需求为导向的创业生态,可以唤醒社会资本投向新技术、新产品、新业态和新商业模式,加速中国经济结构转型升级。第三,通过实施创新新驱动发展战略,让创新成果变成产业活动,以供给创新带动需求扩大,让中国经济持续保持中高速增长。
 
在这些利好的背景下,创业者层出不穷,商业模式也在不断创新,创业内容几乎涵盖了传统经济和新经济各个领域。比如,据中国国家工商总局局长张茅披露,目前,平均在中国每天新登记企业超过1万户,而在改革之前,每天新登记企业是7000户。新登记企业有了大幅度增长。
 
这样一个创新创业的时代,将对英国很多行业带来无限的机会和市场。比如,为降低创业成本,增加创业者融资通道,营造优质,高效,便捷的创新创业环境,就可能带动各种技术平台的开放,带来提升公共服务体系建设和对网络空间资源共享空间的更大需求,同时也会促进金融行业的进一步发展,因为需要为创业者提供多层次的资本市场并进一步优化资本市场规则。毋庸置疑,英国在信息通讯技术、金融等行业都是有很多技术和经验可以与中国分享的。
 
然而,最直接最有权威与中国当下创业大潮对接的领域莫过于英国的创业教育(entrepreneurship education)体系及其成熟的经验。众所周知,英国堪称世界创业教育最成功的国家之一,而中国因为在创业教育领域起步较晚,在诸多领域可以向英国取经。同时,英国与中国在大学生创业教育上又有很多相似的特征,这就为两国互相分享经验奠定了基础。比方说,两国大学生创业教育政策提出的背景都是为了解决高校毕业生就业压力;而两国政府都是创业教育的倡导者,参与的力度都很大。具体讲,在创业教育领域,英国可以向中国输出如下经验和专长,并同时赢得市场商机:
  1. 英国政府在创业教育方面设置专职管理机构的经验,例如英国科学创业中心(Science & Enterprise Centres)和英国全国大学生创业委员会(National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship),而这样的专职机构目前在中国是根本没有的;
  2. 英国的创业教育已经形成了良性的生态系统。在如何构建全社会的支持网络,包括政府组织,非政府组织,商业组织,企业,院校在内的各种社会成份,如何筹建商业基金及汇集社会企业资源,比如像构建“大学-行业-政府三合一模式”(University-Industry-Government,UIG)这方面的经验,都是中国所需要学习的;
  3. 在创业教育体系设立方面,英国有创业启蒙教育、创业通识教育,同时还有创业专业教育,近年来还逐步向本科硕士博士一体的实践项目体系转变。不仅在英国的大学里设有“创业学”专业, 在2007年英国还首次提出在全国范围内设立创业型大学的政策。英国的创业教育体系,课程,教材和师资等资源都会受到中国同行的欢迎;
  4. 还有,英国创业课程网络化的开发做得很好,而创业课程开发在英国一般不是由单个大学独立进行的,而是构成一个课程开发的网络,由众多大学共同合作发展,共同扩大其创业教育的能力。这样一个“互联网+?”模式可以促进创业教育课程多元化,也是值得中国学习的;
  5. 桑德兰大学(University of Sunderland)于2001年依托其商学院成立了英国第一个大学创业孵化器,该模式后来被很多英国大学采用,各大学纷纷成立创业中心,企业中心,创新中心等机构,为学生提供场所,资金,帮助他们联系企业,获取技术支持,帮助成功孵化等。目前中国也有很多大学设有自己的创业孵化器,很多都是刚刚成立的,有太多的方面需要借鉴发达国家的经验。英国无疑可以将这方面成熟的专长分享给中国的高校。
总之,创业教育这个被称为继学术教育,职业教育以外的“第三本教育护照”,正在中国开展起来。我们期待看到更多的英国机构在不久的将来与中国同行共建国际创新创业教育学院或取得其它形式的丰硕合作成果。 
 
最后,CBBC现已承担英国外交部繁荣基金课题“助力创新――加强英中两国企业对接,培育两国科技企业孵化器及两国高校研发和创新机构之间的合作机制”,我们欢迎大家的关注和参与。
 
如果您希望了解更多的资讯,请联系英中贸易协会中国商务顾问Nathalie Cachet-Gaujard (英国办公):nathalie.cachet-gaujard@cbbc.org,或英中贸易协会中国区咨询业务助理总监张军萍(中国办公):jane.zhang@cbbc.org.cn
 
 
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